Survival Use of Plants
(Adapted from the U.S. Army Survival Manual)
After having solved the problems of finding water, shelter,
and animal food, you will have to consider the use of plants
you can eat. In a survival situation you should always be on
the lookout for familiar wild foods and live off the land whenever
You must not count on being able to go for days without food
as some sources would suggest. Even in the most static survival
situation, maintaining health through a complete and nutritious
diet is essential to maintaining strength and peace of mind.
Nature can provide you with food that will let you survive
any ordeal, if you dont eat the wrong plant. You must therefore
learn as much as possible beforehand about the flora of the region
where you will be operating. Plants can provide you with medicines
in a survival situation. Plants can supply you with weapons and
raw materials to construct shelters and build fires. Plants can
even provide you with chemicals for poisoning fish, preserving
animal hides, and for camouflaging yourself and your equipment.
EDIBILITY OF PLANTS
The critical factor when in a survival situation, and using
plants for food, is to avoid accidental poisoning. Eat only those
plants you can positively identify and you know are safe to eat.
Absolutely identify plants before using them as food.
Poison hemlock has killed people who mistook it for its relatives,
wild carrots and wild parsnips.
At times you may find yourself in a situation for which you
could not plan. In this instance you may not have had the chance
to learn the plant life of the region in which you must survive.
In this case you can use the Universal Edibility Test to determine
which plants you can eat and those to avoid.
It is important to be able to recognize both cultivated and
wild edible plants in a survival situation. Most of the information
in this chapter is directed towards identifying wild plants because
information relating to cultivated plants is more readily available.
Remember the following when collecting wild plants for food:
Plants growing near homes and occupied buildings or along
roadsides may have been sprayed with pesticides. Wash them thoroughly.
In more highly developed countries with many automobiles, avoid
roadside plants, if possible, due to contamination from exhaust
Plants growing in contaminated water or in water containing
Giardia lamblia and other parasites are contaminated themselves.
Boil or disinfect them.
Some plants develop extremely dangerous fungal toxins. To
lessen the chance of accidental poisoning, do not eat any fruit
that is starting to spoil or showing signs of mildew or fungus.
Plants of the same species may differ in their toxic or subtoxic
compound content because of genetic or environmental factors.
One example of this is the foliage of the common chokecherry.
Some chokecherry plants have high concentrations of deadly cyanide
compounds while others have low concentrations or none. Horses
have died from eating wilted wild cherry leaves. Avoid any weed,
leaves, or seeds with an almond like scent, a characteristic
of the cyanide compounds.
Some people are more susceptible to gastric distress (from
plants) than others. If you are sensitive in this way, avoid
unknown wild plants. If you are extremely sensitive to poison
ivy, avoid products from this family, including any parts from
sumacs, mangoes, and cashews.
Some edible wild plants, such as acorns and water lily rhizomes,
are bitter. These bitter substances, usually tannin compounds,
make them unpalatable. Boiling them in several changes of water
will usually remove these bitter properties.
Many valuable wild plants have high concentrations of oxalate
compounds, also known as oxalic acid. Oxalates produce a sharp
burning sensation in your mouth and throat and damage the kidneys.
Baking, roasting, or drying usually destroys these oxalate crystals.
The corm (bulb) of the jack-in-the-pulpit is known as the "Indian
turnip," but you can eat it only after removing these crystals
by slow baking or by drying.
Do not eat mushrooms in a survival situation! The only way to
tell if a mushroom is edible is by positive identification. There
is no room for experimentation. Symptoms of the most dangerous
mushrooms affecting the central nervous system may show up after
several days have passed when it is too late to reverse their
You identify plants, other than by memorizing particular varieties
through familiarity, by using such factors as leaf shape and
margin, leaf arrangements, and root structure. Use a good guide
before you are in a survival situation, to practice identifying
Learn as much as possible about plants you intend to use for
food and their unique characteristics. Some plants have both
edible and poisonous parts. Many are edible only at certain times
of the year. Others may have poisonous relatives that look very
similar to the ones you can eat or use for medicine.
Universal Edibility Test
There are many plants throughout the world. Tasting or swallowing
even a small portion of some can cause severe discomfort, extreme
internal disorders, and even death. Therefore, if you have the
slightest doubt about a plants edibility, apply the Universal
Edibility Test (Figure 9-5) before eating any portion of it.
1. Test only one part of a potential food plant at a time.
2. Separate the plants into its basic components-leaves, stems,
roots, buds, and flowers.
3. Smell the food for strong or acid odors. Remember, smell alone
does not indicate a plant is edible or inedible.
4. Do not eat for 8 hours before starting the test.
5. During the 8 hours you abstain from eating, test for contact
poisoning by placing a piece of the plant part you are testing
on the inside of your elbow or wrist. Usually 15 minutes is enough
time to allow for a reaction
6. During the test period, take nothing by mouth except purified
water and the plant part you are testing.
7. Select a small portion of a single part and prepare it the
way you plan to eat it.
8. Before placing the prepared plant part in your mouth, touch
a small portion (a pinch) to the outer surface of your lip to
test for burning or itching.
9. If after 3 minutes there is no reaction on your lip, place
the plant part on your tongue, holding it there for 15 minutes.
10. If there is no reaction, thoroughly chew a pinch and hold
it in your mouth for 15 minutes. Do not swallow.
11. If no burning, itching, numbing stinging, or other irritation
occurs during the 15 minutes, swallow the food.
12. Wait 8 hours. If any ill effects occur during this period,
induce vomiting and drink a lot of water.
13. If no ill effects occur, eat 0.25 cup of the same plant
part prepared the same way. Wait another 8 hours. If no ill effects
occur, the plant part as prepared is safe for eating.
Test all parts of the plant for edibility, as some plants
have both edible and inedible parts. Do not assume that a part
that proved edible when cooked is also edible when raw. Test
the part raw to ensure edibility before eating raw. The same
part or plant may produce varying reactions in different individuals
Before testing a plant for edibility, make sure there are
enough plants to make the testing worth your time and effort.
Each part of a plant (roots, leaves, flowers, and so on) requires
more than 24 hours to test. Do not waste time testing a plant
that is not relatively abundant in the area.
Remember, eating large portions of plant food on an empty
stomach may cause diarrhea, nausea, or cramps. Two good examples
of this are such familiar foods as green apples and wild onions.
Even after testing plant food and finding it safe, eat it in
You can see from the steps and time involved in testing for
edibility just how important it is to be able to identify edible
To avoid potentially poisonous plants, stay away from any
wild or unknown plants that have -
Milky or discolored sap.
Beans, bulbs, or seeds inside pods.
Bitter or soapy taste.
Spines, fine hairs, or thorns.
Dill, carrot, parsnip, or parsley like foliage.
"Almond" scent in woody parts and leaves.
Grain heads with pink, purplish, or black spurs.
Three-leaved growth pattern.
Using the above criteria as eliminators when choosing plants
for the Universal Edibility Test will cause you to avoid some
edible plants. More important, these criteria will often help
you avoid plants that are potentially toxic to eat or touch.
An entire encyclopedia of edible wild plants could be written,
but space limits the number of plants presented here. Learn as
much as possible about the plant life of the areas where you
expect to be traveling or working.
Steve's Notes: Of the hundreds of edible wild
plants you can learn to identify, there are probably only a few
dozen that are widespread and will yield a good return
in calories for the time spent collecting them. Some of the best
survival plants, in my experience: cattail, wild raspberries
and blackberries, service berries, dandelions, wild blueberries,
wild onions and leeks, and burdock.
It is worth learning to identify many others, but start with
a few of these if you want to be ready quickly to make a meal
of plants in a survival situation.
Continued here: Survival
Use Of Plants - Part Two.
See also: Survival Cordage
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